The result was the perfect tonic for Steve Bateman's side after an agonising penalty shoot-out defeat against Mansfield in the FA Cup the previous Tuesday, and keeps his side in touch with the early front-runners in the league as the Rebels look to play catch-up with their games in hand.
After a hard 120 minutes against Mansfield, Bateman brought in Ashley Deeney, Danny Murphy and Jake Parsons, with Sean Fraser and Dominic Rhone taking a place on the bench, and Stuart Swift (bruised foot) and Dave Deeney (groin) injured and watching on from the sidelines.
The first half was a very scrappy affair, with both sides struggling to play good football on a very bobbly, unpredictable playing surface. Jake Parsons did well to put in a tackle to stop Scott Fitzgerald, and Slough won their first corner when Dave Woozley flicked on a free kick and Alan Hedley cleared awkwardly.
James Warrington saved well from tricky winger Terrell Lewis, but Chalfont were thwarted by an offside flag. Ollie Burgess volleyed well over from the edge of the box as Slough struggled to break through.
Both goalkeepers were largely untroubled in the first half, but Warrington had to be alert to save an attempt from a free kick, and a brave block in the Slough penalty area denied Chalfont again.
Chalfont started the second half well, with Terrell Lewis heading a difficult chance over the bar, but Slough gradually came into the game and Michael Power-Simpson was forced to tip over a free kick from Burgess in a central position 20 yards out. From the resulting corner, the ball clipped the top of the bar.
The game started to open up, and Slough worked a shooting opportunity for Woozley, who had made a fine run forward to join the attack, but his effort was well wide.
Chalfont's Fitzgerald fired over after a dangerous attack and Michael Lewis fired another shot wide, whilst Parsons and Deeney were doing their best to find space on the right flank, but found it a difficult task against a determined defence.
But with 71 minutes played, Slough vitally made the breakthrough. Nathan Bowden-Haase found himself in an advanced position, and clipped a ball over the top for Ed Smith to run on to. The striker made no mistake, placing the ball out of Power-Simpson's reach as he bore down on goal.
Minutes later, after Murphy had headed a half-chance over, the wing-back found himself with a run on goal, but was brought down by Terrell Lewis. Referee Graham Kinnear decided to dismiss the Chalfont winger, which seemed harsh to many as the home side had a defender covering.
Smith almost doubled his tally, but was denied by Power-Simpson - but not before Warrington had made a smart save with his feet from substitute Daniel Tomlin.
Slough did make it two-nil with seven minutes remaining, however. A corner kick was cleared only to Murphy, who swung a deep cross back in. Power-Simpson was caught in two minds and Bowden-Haase headed the ball across goal, giving Burnell the simplest of finishes from a yard out.
With the Slough players perhaps starting to tire, Chalfont pushed forward and pulled a goal back two minutes from time, with Tomlin going on a run and finishing past Warrington. But the visitors were able to see out the remainder of the game and claim a hard-fought three points.
Chalfont St Peter Line up
Michael Power-Simpson, Glenn Yala (Luke Heneghan 90), Jerome Okimo, Anthony Lennon, Adam Louth (c), Alex Paine, Terrell Lewis, Alan Hedley, Scott Fitzgerald (Aaron McLeish 82), Brad Wadkins, Michael Lewis (Daniel Tomlin 71). Subs not used: Mark Oliver, Hailu Theoords.